Volume 151, October 2019, Pages 160-174. 

Harsimranjit SinghShiqiang Zhuang, Benjamin Ingis, Bharath Babu Nunna, *Eon Soo Lee


This review focuses on the historic and recent progress of the stability of the carbon-based non-platinum-group metal (PGM) and metal-free catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). It highlights the reported degradation mechanisms which are responsible for the instability issue. These mechanisms are (a) oxidative attack of the ORR intermediates, (b) demetalation of the metal-active site, (c) protonation followed by anionic adsorption, and (d) micropore flooding. For the metal-based catalysts, mechanisms (a) and (b) are the most commonly observed. From the review, it is known that the oxidative attack of ORR intermediates leads to the carbon oxidation, which can also result in the demetalation of the metal-active site. Additionally, the demetalation of the iron-based catalysts can also indirectly oxidize the carbon-support via Fenton reaction. The mechanisms (c) and (d) are sharply criticized. Finally, for the metal-free carbon-based catalysts, there is only a limited research available on the stability of these catalysts. Among the reported study, the mechanisms (a) and (c) can be responsible for the degradation of these catalysts. Therefore, it is recommended that more study should be focused on investigating the degradation parameters and mechanisms for metal-free catalysts.

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Thermal Stability and Potential Cycling Durability of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Modified by Metal-Organic Framework for Oxygen Reduction Reactions

Harsimranjit Singh, Shiqiang Zhuang , Bharath Babu Nunna and Eon Soo Lee *

Catalysts 20188(12), 607;


Sensitivity Study of Cancer Antigens (CA-125) Detection Using Interdigitated Electrodes Under Microfluidic Flow Condition

Bharath Babu Nunna1 & Debdyuti Mandal1 & Joo Un Lee2 & Shiqiang Zhuang1 & Eon Soo Lee1

BioNanoScience (2019)

# Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019


 Bharath Babu Nunna1, Debdyuti Mandal1, Joo Un Lee2, Harsimranjit Singh1, Shiqiang Zhuang1, Durgamadhab Misra3, Md Nasir Uddin Bhuyian3 and Eon Soo Lee1*

Nunna et al. Nano Convergence (2019)