Harsimranjit SinghShiqiang Zhuang, Benjamin Ingis, Bharath Babu Nunna, Eon Soo Lee*

Carbon, Volume 151, October 2019, Pages 160-174. 



This review focuses on the historic and recent progress of the stability of the carbon-based non-platinum-group metal (PGM) and metal-free catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). It highlights the reported degradation mechanisms which are responsible for the instability issue. These mechanisms are (a) oxidative attack of the ORR intermediates, (b) demetalation of the metal-active site, (c) protonation followed by anionic adsorption, and (d) micropore flooding. For the

Thermal Stability and Potential Cycling Durability of Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Modified by Metal-Organic Framework for Oxygen Reduction Reactions

Harsimranjit Singh, Shiqiang Zhuang , Bharath Babu Nunna and Eon Soo Lee *

Catalysts 20188(12), 607; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal8120607


Sensitivity Study of Cancer Antigens (CA-125) Detection Using Interdigitated Electrodes Under Microfluidic Flow Condition

Bharath Babu Nunna1 & Debdyuti Mandal1 & Joo Un Lee2 & Shiqiang Zhuang1 & Eon Soo Lee1*

BioNanoScience 9, 203–214 (2019)


# Springer Science, part of Springer Nature 2019


 Bharath Babu Nunna1, Debdyuti Mandal1, Joo Un Lee2, Harsimranjit Singh1, Shiqiang Zhuang1, Durgamadhab Misra3, Md Nasir Uddin Bhuyian3 and Eon Soo Lee1*

Nano Convergence 6, 3 (2019)



Integrating microfluidics with biosensors is of great research interest with the increasing trend of lab-on-the chip and

point-of-care devices. Though there have been numerous studies performed relating microfluidics to the biosensing

mechanisms, the study of the sensitivity variation due to microfluidic flow is very much limited. In this paper, the sensitivity... 

  • Zhuang, S., Singh, H., Nunna, B.B., Mandal, D., Bosoboinik, J.A., Lee, E.S.* (2018).
  • Nitrogen-doped graphene-based catalyst with metal-reduced organic framework: Chemical analysis and structure control,
  • Carbon, Volume 139, November 2018, Pages 933-944.
  • https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbon.2018.07.068

Debdyuti Mandal, Bharath Babu Nunna, Shiqiang Zhuang, Subhajit Rakshit, and Eon Soo Lee*.

"Carbon nanotubes based biosensor for detection of cancer antigens (CA-125) under shear flow condition." 

Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects (2018). Volume 15, July 2018, Pages 180-185

Full Article: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nanoso.2017.09.013

Abstract: The detection and determination of the cancer biomarkers is very crucial to diagnose at the early stages. We implement to design the biosensor which can improve the detection by reducing the process time, cost and space. The research approach mainly is focused on developing a surface modification protocol for better sensitivity under the shear flow rate conditions using carbon nanotubes (CNTs).

Zhuang S, Nunna BB, Mandal D, Lee ES* (2018)
A review of nitrogen-doped graphene catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cells-synthesis, characterization, and improvement.
Nano-Structures & Nano-Objects. Volume 15, July 2018, Pages 140-152
Platinum group metals (PGM), such as platinum (Pt) or ruthenium (Ru), are the most common catalyst materials for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) because of their excellent catalytic performance. However, the high raw material cost of PGM catalysts has become a significant issue. Currently, the nitrogen-doped graphene (N-G) catalyst emerges as one of the promising non-PGM catalysts with the advantages of low cost and high ORR catalytic performance to replace expensive PGM catalysts in electrochemical systems.
Yang LiabLiyuan KuangbDequan XiaocAppala Raju BadireddydMaocong HueShiqiang ZhuangfXianqin WangeEon Soo LeefTaha MarhababWen Zhangb

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy (2018)

Volume 43, Issue 9, 1 March 2018, Pages 4335-4346


Shiqiang ZhuangBharath Babu Nunna and Eon Soo Lee* (2018)

MRS Communications, Volume 8, Issue 1, March 2018, pp. 40-48 



Nitrogen-doped graphene(N-G) is a promising non-platinum group metal catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction. A new N-G/MOF catalyst is derived by the modification of metal organic framework on N-G catalysts to enhance the electrochemical performance of N-G by increasing the surface area and porosity in this paper.

Cover page: 

Zhuang, S., Nunna, B. B., Boscoboinik, J. A., and Lee, E. S.* (2017)

Cover Image, Int. J. Energy Res. Volume 41, Issue 15. December 2017


Article: Zhuang S, Nunna BB, Boscoboinik JA, Lee ES. Nitrogen-doped graphene catalysts: High energy wet ball milling synthesis and characterizations of functional groups and particle size variation with time and speed. Int J Energy Res. 2017;41:2535–2554. DOI: 10.1002/er.3821

Nunna, Bharath Babu; Mandal, Debdyuti; Zhuang, Shiqiang; Lee, Eon Soo*

Sensors & Transducers; Toronto Vol. 214, Iss. 7,  (Jul 2017): 12-20.


Abstract: Most of the cancers are curable if they are detected at early stages. The early-stage detection of cancers can significantly improve the patient treatment outcomes and thus helps to decrease the. To achieve the early detection of specific cancer, the biochip is incorporated with an innovative sensing mechanism and surface treated microchannels. The sensing mechanism employed in the Point of Care (POC) biochip is designed to be highly specific and sensitive.

Zhuang S, Lei L, Nunna B, Lee ES*. New Nitrogen-Doped Graphene/MOF-modified catalyst for Fuel Cell Systems.

ECS Trans. 2016 volume 72, issue 8, 149-154

doi: 10.1149/07208.0149ecst


Abstract: Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which have advantages such as large surface area and high porosity, are recently investigated as a component of electrochemical catalysts to enhance the catalytic performance. But the influences of MOFs on the properties of catalysts such as surface structure, local structure of active sites, catalytic activity, and selectivity are still under investigation.

Shiqiang Zhuang1 , Eon Soo Lee1*,†, Lin Lei1 , Bharath Babu Nunna1 , Liyuan Kuang2 and Wen Zhang2

*Corresponding author: Eon Soo Lee (This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Int. J. Energy Res. (2016), Volume 40, Issue15, December 2016, Pages 2136-2149

Abstract: Platinum group metal-based (PGM) catalysts are widely applied in many electrochemical systems such as fuel cells or metalair batteries because of their excellent catalytic performance. But the high raw material cost of PGM catalysts has become a significant issue. In recent years, huge efforts have been made to reduce the material cost of electrochemical systems by developing non-PGM catalysts, and as one of the promising non-PGM catalysts, nitrogen-doped graphene (N-G) has emerged. In this research, nanoscale high-energy wet ball milling methodology was investigated as an effective synthesis method for N-G catalysts... 

Julie E Steinbrenner, Eon Soo Lee, Carlos H. Hidrovo, John K Eaton, Kenneth E Goodson

Journal of Power Sources, Volume 196, Issue 11, 1 June 2011, Pages 5012-5020

Abstract: An important function of the gas delivery channels in PEM fuel cells is the evacuation of water at the cathode. The resulting two-phase flow impedes reactant transport and causes parasitic losses. There is a need for research on two-phase flow in channels in which the phase fraction varies along the flow direction as in operating fuel cells. This work studies two-phase flow in 60cm long channels with distributed water injection through a porous GDL wall to examine the physics of flows relevant to fuel cells.

Jae-Young Lee, Jiyong Joo, Jae Kwang Lee, Sunghyun Uhm, Eon Soo Lee, Jae Hyuk Jang, Nam-Ki Kim, Yong-Chul Lee, Jaeyoung Lee

Korean J. Chem. Eng. 27(3), 843-847 (2010)

DOI: 10.1007/s11814-010-0141-7


Jiyong Joo, Jae Kwang Lee, Y. Kwon, C. R. Jung, Eon Soo Lee, Jae Hyuk Jang,H. J. Lee, Sunghyun Uhm, Jaeyoung Lee

Fuel Cells (2009), Volume10, Issue6, December 2010, Pages 926-931

Jongpil Choi, Eon-Soo Lee, Jae-Huk Jang, Young Ho Seo and Byeonghee Kim

World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology (2009)

International Journal of Aerospace and Mechanical Engineering

Vol:3, No:8, 2009


Julie E Steinbrenner, Carlos H Hidrovo, Fu-Min Wang, Sebastien Vigneron, Eon Soo Lee, Theresa A Kramer, Ching-Hsiang Cheng, John K Eaton, Kenneth E Goodson

Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 27, Issue 10, July 2007, Pages 1722-1727


Abstract: Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells incorporating microchannels (D < 500μm) can benefit from improved fuel delivery and convective cooling. However, this requires a better understanding of two-phase microchannel transport phenomena, particularly liquid–gas interactions and liquid clogging in cathode air-delivery channels. This paper develops optical fluorescence imaging of water films in hydrophilic channels with varying air velocity and water injection rate. 

Fu-Min Wang, Julie E. Steinbrenner, Carlos H. Hidrovo, Theresa A. Kramer, Eon Soo Lee, Sebastien Vigneron, Ching-Hsiang Cheng, John K. Eaton, Kenneth E. Goodson

Applied Thermal Engineering, Volume 27, Issue 10, July 2007, Pages 1728-1733


Abstract: Microchannels (0.05–1 mm) improve gas routing in proton exchange membrane fuel cells, but add to the complexities of water management. This work microfabricates experimental structures with distributed water injection as well as with heating and temperature sensing capabilities to study water formation and transport. The samples feature optical access to allow visualization and distributed thermometry for investigation of two-phase flow transport phenomena in the microchannels. The temperature evolution along the channel is observed that the temperature downstream of the distributed water injection decreases as the pressure drop increases.

Carlos H Hidrovo, Theresa A Kramer, Evelyn N Wang, Sébastien Vigneron, Julie E Steinbrenner, Jae-Mo Koo, Fu-Min Wang, David W Fogg, Roger D Flynn, Eon Soo Lee, Ching-Hsiang Cheng, Thomas W Kenny, John K Eaton, Kenneth E Goodson
Heat Transfer Engineering, 27(4):53–63, 2006
Absstract: Industrial trends are presenting major challenges and opportunities for research on two-phase flows in microchannels. Semiconductor companies are developing 3D circuits for which multilevel microfluidic cooling is important. Gas delivery microchannels are promising for PEM fuel cells in portable electronics. However, data and modeling are needed for flow regime stability, liquid entrainment/clogging, and bubble inception/departure in complex 2D and 3D geometries. This paper provides an overview of the Stanford two-phase ...