Platinum group metals (PGM), such as platinum (Pt) or ruthenium (Ru), are the most common catalyst materials for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) because of their excellent catalytic performance. However, the high raw material cost of PGM catalysts has become a significant issue. Currently, the nitrogen-doped graphene (N-G) catalyst emerges as one of the promising non-PGM catalysts with the advantages of low cost and high ORR catalytic performance to replace expensive PGM catalysts in electrochemical systems.

Nitrogen-doped graphene (N-G) catalyst emerges as one of the promising non-platinum group metal (non-PGM) catalysts with the advantages of low cost, high oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) activity, stability, and selectivity to replace expensive PGM catalysts in electrochemical systems. In this research, nanoscale high energy wet (NHEW) ball milling is first investigated for the synthesis of N-G catalysts to make conventional problems such as sintering or localized overheating issues negligible.

Most of the cancers are curable if they are detected at early stages. The early stage detection of cancers can significantly improve the patient treatment outcomes and thus helps to decrease the. To achieve the early detection of specific cancer, the biochip is incorporated with an innovative sensing mechanism and surface treated microchannels. The sensing mechanism employed in the Point of Care (POC) biochip is designed to be highly specific and sensitive.

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs), which have advantages such as large surface area and high porosity, are recently investigated as a component of electrochemical catalysts to enhance the catalytic performance. But the influences of MOFs on the properties of catalysts such as surface structure, local structure of active sites, catalytic activity, and selectivity are still under investigation.